Diesel Engine Manufacturers Continue To Improve The Fuel Efficiency Of Their Engines

As we enter 1985, marine power plant designers continue the general practice that became common in the 1970's, that is the practice of designing power plants for high thermal efficiency. Low fuel consumption, over a wide range of operating powers, became and continues to be of paramount importance. The practice of designing for high thermal efficiency resulted in the nearly universal use of diesel prime movers for main propulsion. During this transition period, a period of approximately one decade, the marine community experienced a significant degradation of fuel oil quality which caused a level of trepidation relative to choosing internal combustion engines such as the diesel engine. As a result of aggressive research and design efforts undertaken by the engine manufacturer, prudent decisions concerning fuel selection by the operators, and advances in shipboard fuel treatment techniques, the modern diesel-powered merchant ships are very capable of operating economically on available marine fuels. During the decade, the engine manufacturer even succeeded in significantly reducing engine specific fuel consumption as demonstrated by the long stroke engines. It appears marine engineering design efforts in the near future will continue the trend to convert the maximum amounts of the available energy in the fuel to usable energy. Marine engineers will continue to adopt the most efficient engines available to the industry and will develop system designs that will result in overall fuel consumption at such low levels that they nearly cut in half the levels common in the U.S. merchant fleet prior to 1973. These systems will probably incorporate multi-pressure waste-heat steam generators, induction turbines for driving the ship service generator and jacket water motivated auxiliaries such as distilling units and absorption type air conditioning systems. Although the recent stabilization, and lowering of marine fuel oil prices have reduced the immediate incentive for designing power plants for ultra-low fuel consumption, the industry has been forcibly conditioned to accept power plants with the lowest possible overall fuel consumption. Owners know that low fuel consumption normally converts to lower required freight rates and will continue purchasing vessels with the lowest possible annual fuel costs.

Concurrent with the operator's desire to keep overall fuel consumption to a minimum there exists the requirement to maintain high equipment reliability and system availability. High equipment reliability and system availability depend on two critically important criteria; sound design and intelligent operation. Sound design involves individual system components and system integration of the required components. Marine engineers need to augment conventional design considerations (thermal, fluid, material, strength requirements, etc.) by reliability and value engineering analyses in order to better serve the needs of the owner. Weak links in marine systems must be eliminated by improving specific component designs or eliminating components when appropriate. The design marine engineer must continually consider the shipboard environment— which includes the vessel, the sea and the crew—when developing the design. Intelligent operation includes basing normal operating decisions on sound engineering principles and thorough knowledge of components and systems. To achieve intelligent operation of modern power plants designed for minimum fuel consumption the owner must insure that pertinent technical information is aboard each vessel and that the crews understand how to use the technical information to optimize the plant's operation. For an owner to optimize his operation it is not enough to specify a vessel design with ultra-low fuel consumption, but it will be necessary to insure that the vessel is attended to properly. The ashore personnel's responsibility centers around supporting the sea-going personnel in achieving maximum fuel efficiency. Ashore personnel must analyze all suggestions thoroughly before making a decision to implement or not. Remember, not implementing a suggestion may result in reduced present expenditures but it may also eliminate long term savings. Another responsibility is to foster a climate of high technical awareness. It is only through sound technical awareness that operators can adapt to changing technical and operation requirements. A few thousand dollars spent on honing a chief engineer's technical skills may manifest itself as an annual fuel savings worth many times more. The prevention of the degradation of a plant's efficiency of a mere one percent, may save an owner $50,000 in annual fuel costs, let alone the potential maintenance costs resulting from poor operating practices.

The following is a compendium of the state-of-the-art components and systems available for powering modern vessels with reduced fuel costs. ALCO POWER Alco Power Inc. is currently involved in a project that will add increased fuel efficiency to its model 251 diesel engine, as well as decrease the amount of time required to achieve rated horsepower and speed from engine idle speed. This is accomplished by the application of the model 131 turbocharger on the Alco 16-cylinder, model 251 CE diesel engine. This is now being tested in towboat service on the lower Mississippi and is receiving very favorable results. Alco is also involved with the development of a new piston design to further increase fuel efficiency over its current valve-pocketed design. Although this is in its preliminary stages, Alco hopes to have it out in the marketplace shortly.

Other developments on the horizon include continued experimentation with heavy fuels, camshaft design changes, and experimentation with turbocharger application, all of which will add up to increased fuel efficiency. B&W ALPHA B&W Alpha Diesel A/S of Frederikshavn, Denmark, is a company of the M.A.N.-B&W Group that designs, manufactures, markets, and services complete vessel propulsion systems. Last year the company completed the integration of the in-line and V version of the 20/27 M.A.N.-B&W diesel engine and the in-line version of the 32/36 M.A.N.-B&W engine with existing Alpha controllable-pitch propellers and gearboxes. This has resulted in four-cycle diesel propulsion systems developing as little as 680 bhp at 1,000 rpm, which can burn heavy fuel oil up to 2,100 sec. Redwood 1 at 100 F.

A new series being offered is the 20/27-VO propulsion system. While the engine itself is not new, the system incorporates the new Alphatronic I and Alphatronic II— the company's latest electronic remote control systems.

BERGEN DIESEL A.S. Bergens Mekaniske Verksteder (Bergen Diesel) of Norway has used heavy fuel in its engines for more than 20 years and has very solid experience in this field. Some 500 engines, both propulsion and generator sets, are in operation on heavy fuel, with the longest running times in excess of 100,000 hours. The company's U.S. subsidiary, Bergen Diesel, Inc., is located in Kenner (New Orleans), La. The thermal efficiency of Bergen Diesel's K-range of engines is as high as today's state of the art will allow, giving a realistically low specific fuel consumption over a wide load range. Furthermore, the K-type engine is the product of more than 20 years of heavy fuel operation experience, and is thus capable of burning low-grade, highviscosity heavy fuels while maintaining extremely long component overhaul intervals and component life.

To be able to operate vessels at or near the point of optimum fuel efficiency, Bergen Diesel has designed sophisticated engine systems that have been put into successful operation. For fishing vessels, systems with high-output shaft generators, driven via twospeed gearboxes from engine front end power take-offs, allows the use of shaft generators at two engine speed modes, i.e., the free-running and the trawling speed, for inexpensive, main-engine-generated electric power. Hybrid power systems, being a combination of diesel- electric and diesel-mechanical power transmission to the propellers, give offshore supply and anchor- handling vessel operators the possibility to utilize the advantages of both systems.

CATERPILLAR Caterpillar 3500 Series marine engines have set new standards for fuel savings—savings that can actually allow repower with full payback in less than IV2 years. Fuel savings may in fact exceed 35 percent at all operating loads, not just within a limited range or at "rated" load.

Designed for tighter oil control than two-cycle engines and most four-cycle engines, the 3500s can save several thousand dollars a year in lube oil costs alone. For simplified maintenance, front-mounted governor and sidemounted oil, water, and fuel transfer pumps improve accessibility.

Fuel filters, oil, and oil filters can all be changed at the same time. Access covers near the camshaft and in the crankcase allows simple and effective visual inspection. These and other 3500 Series design features translate into less maintenance time and lower maintenance costs.

When Caterpillar goes into production of its medium-speed 3600 series in 1985, the company will offer four additional models with a continuous output range from 1,700 bhp at 700 rpm to 6,000 bhp at 1,000 rpm.

The 3600 Series engines are expected to be among the most fuelefficient and durable in their power and speed class—720-1,000 rpm. Initial rated fuel consumption of 0.327 pounds per horsepower-hour is achieved through system and component efficiency, including turbocharger match, unit injectors, precision injection timing, and high combustion pressure capability. The family is designed to operate on a range of blended fuels.

COLT INDUSTRIES Colt Industries' Fairbanks Morse Engine Division continues to offer both the Colt Pielstick and the Fairbanks Morse opposed-piston diesel engines. The Fairbanks 38D8-1/8 opposed-piston engine is offered in both blower-scavenged and turbocharged versions, with horsepower ranges from 708 to 3,500 bhp at 750 rpm, and 920 to 4,200 bhp at 900 rpm. These engines have always enjoyed high fuel efficiency, but today's sophisticated electronic control and monitoring systems are squeezing even better fuel economy from them. Fairbanks Morse continues to produce the Colt Pielstick PC-2.3V and PC-2.5V diesel engines, with ratings from 6,420 to 11,700 bhp at 520 rpm. These engines are capable of burning heavier grades of residual fuels.

The Engine Division now offers the Colt Pielstick PC-2.6 L & V and the high-horsepower PC-4.2V diesel engines. The PC-2.6, with horsepower ratings from 4,422 to 13,266 bhp, is a development of the PC-2 series medium-speed engine with the same general dimensions. The PC-2.6 engine can burn all heavy fuels available on the market. The engine is fitted with water-cooled cages and exhaust valves, especially adapted to the fuel's vanadium content. The advanced technology of the PC-2.6 engine enables it to burn the poorest foreseeable heavy fuel without major modifications.

The Colt Pielstick PC-4.2V, rated from 16,270 to 29,286 bhp, is able to burn residual fuels of up to 4,000 sec. Redwood #1 at 100 F with a 400 ppm vanadium content. The Colt Pielstick engines are backed by SEMT Pielstick's ongoing research and development programs. The PC engine family has approximately 60 million hours of experience running on heavy fuels. CUMMINS ENGINE Cummins Engine Company manufactures six series of marine diesel engines rated from 170 to 1,250 bhp, continuous-duty operation. Designed for heavy-duty workboat and fishboat applications, both main propulsion and ship service auxiliary power, Cummins engines have developed a reputation over the years for fuel-efficient power.

Since the mid-1970s, the Cummins K marine engines have developed a reputation for fuel efficiency as well as reliability. The KT/KTA-1150 series are in-line, six-cylinder models developing 400- 475 continuous bhp at 1,800 rpm; displacement is 1,150 cubic inches (18.9 liters).

The KT/KTA-2300 and KTA- 3067-M engines, introduced in 1978 and 1980, respectively, complete the Cummins product line with high horsepower, reliability, durability, and fuel economy. The 2300 series engines are a 12-cylinder, V configuration design with a displacement of 2,300 cubic inches (27.8 liters). The turbocharged engine has a rating of 800 bhp at 1,800 rpm, and the turbo/aftercooled version has a 940 bhp rating at 1,800 rpm.

The KTA-3067-M engine is rated at 1,250 bhp at 1,800 rpm for continuous- duty applications. It is a 16-cylinder engine with 3,067-cubic- inch (50.3-liter) displacement. Recognized at their introduction as the most fuel-efficient marine diesel engines in their horsepower range, the K series engines have been improved continually to reduce specific fuel consumption.

Over the past three years, Cummins has reduced the specific fuel consumption for these models an additional 2-3 percent.

DAIHATSU DIESEL With its extensive experience in the marine field, Daihatsu has developed a new type of engine, the DL series, which features low quality fuel burning, low load operability, and low fuel consumption.

These DL series engines— DL-20, DL-26, DL-28, and DL-32— are a medium-speed type (600-1,000 rpm) with outputs covering the range from 750 to 3,000 bhp (550 to 2,205 kw). They are suitable for both main propulsion and auxiliary generating roles.

Severe tests and experiments under various conditions on all parts of these engines were carried out at the Daihatsu laboratory and factory before they were placed on the market. Daihatsu's traditional design concepts—simple and sturdy construction, easy maintenance, and lower maintenance costs—are fully incorporated in the DL series engines.

DETROIT DIESEL The Detroit Diesel Allison division of General Motors offers advanced fuel economy models of its 149 Series diesel engines. The turbocharged and intercooled engines are said to be the most fuel-efficient heavy-duty diesels available in their power range.

The Detroit 149 engines in 12- and 16-cylinder, V configurations are expected to show fuel economy improvements of about 3.5 percent over previous engines at the same horsepower ratings. The 12-cylinder models are available up to 894 bhp, and the 16-cylinder versions up to 1,212 bhp. The fuel economy improvements are the result of a number of engineering developments, including new turbochargers, unit fuel injectors, and a new airflow system.

ELECTRO-MOTIVE DIVISION A new, more fuel-efficient version of the popular 645 Series diesel engine was introduced in 1983 by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors. Compared with previous 645 models, the new engine is said to provide a reduction in fuel consumption of about 3 percent.

The new EC engine series combines innovative design features that insure superior performance, extended operating service, and enable the engine to withstand higher operating pressures with state-of-the-art turbocharger technology. The 645EC uses a 16:1 compression ratio piston, increased from 14.5:1, producing the same power output with less fuel. A newly designed impeller and compressor have been incorporated into the turbocharger.

Last year EMD also introduced a heavier crankcase option, the 645F engine. This engine, designed for high horsepower outputs, is currently available in 16- and 20-cylinder models.

GENERAL ELECTRIC GE's fuel-efficient, four-stroke 7FDM marine diesel engines now offer ratings from 1,525 to 4,000 bhp. The 8-cylinder model is rated 1,525 bhp at 900 rpm and 1,800 bhp at 1,050 rpm. The 7FDM 12-cylinder engines are rated at 2,550 bhp and 3,000 bhp at 900 and 1,050 rpm, respectively, while 16-cylinder engines carry ratings of 3,400 bhp at 900 rpm and 4,000 bhp at 1,050 rpm.

To help reduce fuel costs, GE's Blended Fuel Testing Program is presently burning a blend of 50 percent #6 fuel with 50 percent #2 fuel in its new Engine Endurance Laboratory in Erie, Pa.

General Electric's recently introduced three-ring piston design significantly reduced lube oil consumption during field tests. This GE design, using two compression rings and one oil control ring, also reduces ring wear for longer life between overhauls.

The development of GE turbochargers that operate more effectively in marine service has greatly improved acceleration characteristics and can further improve fuel efficiency. The projected life of connection rod bearings and their crankshaft journals has been increased with the development of a grooveless upper rod bearing half, while welded-in, stainless steel 30-degree value seats improve cylinder head life.

GEORGE ENGINE As much as an 11.5-percent reduction in fuel consumption can be realized by George Engine Company's "bypass operation"—the upgrading of a Detroit Diesel 149 series engine from its normally aspired (NA) configuration to a turbocharged, intercooled, blower-bypass (TIB) configuration using tbe latest high-tech components from Detroit Diesel. Fuel savings provide a rapid payback of the cost of the conversion.

With a smaller fuel injector, the TIB configuration produces the same horsepower at the same rpm as the NA arrangement, but does it with significantly less fuel. Alternatively, the owner may elect to use larger injectors to achieve greater horsepower output, but still at a competitively low specific fuel consumption figure.

ISOTTA FRASCHINI Isotta Fraschini S.p.A. is a company of the VM Group, the diesel engine sector of Finmeccanica of Italy. Isotta has been designing and building engines continuously since 1909. It is headquartered in Saronna, about 15 miles from Milan, with a second major facility located in Bari on the Adriatic Sea.

Isotta designs and manufactures a broad range of diesel engines for diverse applications. The ID 32 engine series for marine propulsion has a power output range from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-3,000 rpm. The ID 38 series when used for marine propulsion is rated from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-2,900 rpm for workboat use, 500 bhp at 3,000 rpm in military applications. The ID 36 engine type is rated 300- 1,320 bhp at 1,650-1,800 rpm for workboats, and up to 1,600 bhp at 1,900 rpm for military craft. The ID 36 diesel engines are available in V-form models with six, eight, 12, and 16 cylinders; a 10-cylinder version is presently under development. All production engines in this series are available in amagnetic versions. Isotta also manufactures, under license, the Paxman Diesel model PV2000 engine, which has a power range of 1,000-4,500 bhp at 1,600 rpm. The ID 36 SS6 V-AM amagnetic engine is being supplied to the U.S. Navy for its mine countermeasure ship program. This engine has a continuous power rating of 660 bhp at 1,800 rpm for ambient temperature of 78 F; when derated for 100 F, output is 620 bhp at 1,800 rpm. Parallel operation of two ID 36 SS6 V-AM engines into a common gearbox provides a continuous output power of 1,320 bhp at 78 F ambient.

Cost of ownership/life cycle costs for the ID 36 SS6 V-AM engine is reduced through high reliability and time between overhaul, and low maintainability. Because the engine's magnetic signature is permanent, it never needs to be removed from the ship for periodic degaussing. ID 36 series engines have demonstrated mean time between overhaul in excess of 14,000 hours per engine on 134 units operating more than 1.9 million hours. The manufacturer reports, through use of Reliability Centered Maintenance, the need for periodic overhauls is non-existant, thus making MTBO in excess of 20,000 hours.

KHD A range of weight- and cost-saving diesel engines has been developed by Deutz Engines Ltd., British subsidiary of Klockner- Humboldt-Deutz AG, in which new technology has made them safely operable well within Zone 2 minimum requirements, without the need for purge-pressurized enclosures.

Until recently, only a few small diesels have ever been adapted to operate free-standing in a Zone 2 environment, and these were extensively customized to suit particular applications. With this latest KHD development, it is now possible for Deutz 816 diesel engines in a variety of sizes and configurations with outputs ranging from 120 to 870 kw (163 to 1,180 bhp) to be operated safely in areas outside the protection of specially designed, purge-pressurized enclosures. The Deutz 816 series is available as a package adapted for Zone 2, which calls for a maximum surface and gas temperature of 250 C. Deutz has gone beyond this requirement, with a maximum temperature of 180 C.

Development of the 816 to Zone 2 standards was carried out in response to a growing demand from oil companies. Building a purgepressurized enclosure is costly, imposing a weight penalty and creating problems of accessibility to the engine.

In adapting the 816, Deutz started out with certain advantages. The engine was developed originally for mining applications and meets strict West German regulations. The temperature of most of the engine surface was already well below the Zone 2 requirement, the problem of cooling being limited to the exhaust system. Even in this respect some of the work had already been done, as the 816 had an option of watercooled exhaust manifolds and turbochargers.

KRUPP MaK DIESEL According to MaK, there are different ways to improve the total economy of a vessel's propulsion plant. Items that can be fully influenced by the engine maker are: reduce the specific fuel consumption; design the engines for the lowest grades of heavy fuels that will be available in the future; and provide heavy-fuel engines for a wide output range in order to generate auxiliary power on board ships with engines using the same low-grade heavy fuels burned in the main propulsion diesels.

MaK offers heavy-fuel engines in the power range from 740 to 9,000 kw (about 1,000 to 12,240 bhp). Each power demand can be covered by in-line engines with a minimum number of cylinders.

Developments to reduce fuel consumption were introduced for MaK's large-bore, four-stroke M601 engine with 580-mm bore and 600- mm stroke. Improvements in the past two years regarding optimizing injection and scavenging brought the specific fuel consumption of an 8M601 engine with an output of 8,000 kw (10,880 bhp) down to 125 grams per brake horsepower-hour. Reliability of the engine was not affected because the measure of increasing the firing pressure was not yet used.

Further improvements in economy are possible for the peripheral equipment, such as improvements in propulsion efficiency by means of low-speed propellers, and waste heat recovery by means of using exhaust gas and cooling water energy for generating electricity in turbogenerators.

M.A.N.-B&W DIESEL M.A.N.-B&W Diesel, as the world's largest designer of marine diesel engines, has successfully developed engines with the highest thermal efficiency available, while at the same time maintaining a very high level of service reliability. With the introduction of the MC low-speed series, M.A.N.-B&W has brought the fuel consumption down to 118 grams per brake horsepower- hour, which, compared with the 156 g/bhph 10 years ago, means a reduction of about 25 percent. At the same time the corresponding revolutions of the direct-coupled propeller have been reduced from 114 rpm to 60 rpm, which has led to an increase in the propeller efficiency of 12-15 percent. These factors combined mean a total saving in the fuel oil consumption on propulsion engines alone of up to 40 percent.

The new four-stroke, heavy-fuel L58/64 engine will be produced as in-line units with six, seven, eight, and nine cylinders, providing a power range (mcr) from 9,900 to 14,850 bhp.

The L58/64 is a logical up-grading of M.A.N, medium-speed engines that have rendered excellent service in operation on heavy fuel for almost 20 years. This early understanding of heavy fuel burning characteristics was further extended by the 40/45 engine type, which in the 1970s introduced a modern concept with high firing pressure, the basis for low fuel consumption.

During the development of the L58/64 engine, particular emphasis was placed on the following: low fuel consumption; high reliability in unrestricted operation; simple and easy maintenance; and adaptability to varying operating and environmental conditions as well as fuel ignition qualities. MTU OF NORTH AMERICA MTU of North America, Inc., is the American subsidiary of Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH (MTU) of West Germany, which is owned jointly by Daimler-Benz and M.A.N. The U.S. company has devoted more than five years to building a sales and service organization that reflects the high standards of the MTU organization worldwide.

The MTU diesel engine line covers an output range from 440 to 10,000 bhp at speeds between 1,000 and 2,400 rpm. Basic design features common to the series are: V configuration, water cooling, exhaust gas turbocharging, and charge air cooling.

The model 20V 1163 TB 93 engine introduced in 1983 is evidence of MTU's continued success in its development program, which focuses on increasing engine power and power concentration, reducing fuel consumption throughout the entire speed range, extending operating range through higher pressures, and improving partialload characteristics.

The major obstacle to fulfilling these goals, which also include the use of lower quality, heavier fuels with lower cetane numbers and higher impurity levels, is that the individual requirements are interdependent and, therefore, require a common solution. MTU's solution is cylinder cutout, cylinder charge transfer, and sequential turbocharging; all three systems have been proven in actual service trials.

MTU's marine diesels are designed for a wide range of commercial and naval applications.

These include continuous duty with a power range of 590 to 4,930 bhp for vessels with unlimited operating range and/or unrestricted continuous operation, and medium duty with a power range of 640 to 5,425 bhp for passenger vessels in seasonal service, patrol boats, and cruise engines for vessels with combined propulsion systems.

MWM In early 1983 Motoren-Werke Mannheim A.G. (MWM) announced an expansion of its U.S.

sales and service network aimed at marketing the company's higheroutput engine series in North America. MWM Stewart * Stevenson, headquartered in Houston markets MWM's 400 and 500 series Multifuel engines.

The 400 series is a four-stroke, direct-injection design available in diesel oil, natural gas, dual fuel, intermediate, and heavy fuel versions. There are three basic model classifications in the 400 series— the 440, the 441, and the newest 444. The 440 and 441 models have the same 9.06-inch bore, 10.6-inch stroke, and swept volume of 684 cubic inches per cylinder. The new 444 model has the same bore but the stroke has been increased to 12.6 inches, giving a displacement of 812 cubic inches per cylinder. The longer-stroke 444 is available in in-line 6- and 8-cylinder turbocharged-intercooled models, and has an operating speed up to 750 rpm. It was designed for optimum performance on lower grade and heavy fuels up to 3,500 sec. Redwood 1, which may be the norm in years to come. Redesign of the internal cooling circuit and new generation turbochargers has increased the overall efficiency of the basic engine design, producing an output significantly greater than 440 model with no detrimental effects on fuel consumption. For the introductory model 444, output on diesel fuel was 250 bhp per cylinder at 750 rpm—2,000 bhp for the 8-cylinder model.

Basic design features of the 400 series include individual cylinder heads with four valves per head in an overhead arrangement, and piston cooling on all turbochargedintercooled models. All models, both naturally aspirated and turbocharged- intercooled, are oilcooled.

The 500 series, the largest of the MWM product line, is divided into two separate engine families—the 510B and the 501. The 510B is comprised of four basic turbocharged- intercooled engines with a common bore of 13 inches and stroke of 14.2 inches. An in-line version is offered with six or eight cylinders and a V type with 12 or 16 cylinders. Like tbe 400 series, the 510B has been designed to operate on a variety of fuels, even the poorer grades with viscosity up to 3,500 sec. Redwood.

Design characteristics of the 500 family allow operating speeds between 600 and 750 rpm. The 510B has a swept volume of 1,879 cubic inches per cylinder and an output of 525 bhp per cylinder, up to 8,400 bhp for the 16-cylinder model operating on diesel fuel. Currently, only the 6- and 8-cylinder models are available for operation on dual fuel and natural gas; output at 750 rpm is 1,890 bhp for the 6-cylinder model and 2,515 bhp for the 8-cylinder unit.

The 501 model is available in a turbocharged-intercooled in-line version with six or eight cylinders. Each has a bore of 14.2 inches and stroke of 17.7 inches; operating speed is between 428 and 514 rpm. Designed for operation on diesel and poorer grades of fuel, output at 514 rpm is 2,475 bhp for the 6- cylinder model and 3,300 bhp for the 8-cylinder version.

PENSKE GM POWER Penske GM Power, Inc. represents Detroit Diesel Allison and Electro-Motive Division products that have survived the test of time and consistently provided the kind of value and dependability thatproduces results. The company is authorized to carry all Detroit Diesel engines and also offers the EMD 645 Series.

The Penske-engineered Detroit Diesel 8V92TI, a high-perform- reance marine power package, is a compact, heavy-duty engine with a horsepower-to-weight ratio of 6.4 pounds per shp, establishing a new standard for the industry. The 8V-92TI marine propulsion engine was developed using only field-proven components and thoroughly tested by Penske's own dynamometer.

Today's Detroit Diesel and EMD engines incorporate the latest stateof- the-art design modifications, such as low smoke injectors, bypass blowers, high-output turbochargers, aftercoolers, and refined engine timing. More importantly, these features are incorporated into the reliable and affordable engine design that has gained worldwide recognition and offers unsurpassed application and standardization potential.

Penske field engineers are ready to survey equipment for refurbishment or replacement, train operators and technicians, and establish comprehensive preventive maintenance programs to guarantee optimum reliability and equipment life.

SACM SACM (Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques) of France manufactures medium- and high-speed, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engines known for their lower specific fuel consumption and compact size. The company is represented in the U.S. by F.W. Donnelly Company of Houston.

For the offshore drilling and production industry, SACM is one of Europe's leading suppliers of diesel generator sets with continuous, 60-cycle ratings from 100 to 4,000 kw. These compact sets are in use on one of the world's largest semi-submersibles, the Dyvi Delta, and on the production platforms Statfjord B and Statfjord C.

SACM engines ranging from 100 to 8,400 bhp are in use throughout the world in a variety of commercial and military high-speed vessels. These include the Bell-Halter BH 110 surface effect ship, the Westamarin catamaran, and SAR 33.

The French company is a leader in the development of reduced volumetric ratio (RVR), Hyperbar, and two-stage turbocharged engines that provide excellent powerto- weight ratios. The SACM 520 V12 S3 (Hyperbar) diesel has a top rating for fast patrol boats of 1,400 bhp at 2,500 rpm, and a dry weight with accessories and reduction gear of 7,480 pounds.

SACM is active in the development of intermediate fuel burning capabilities for its medium- and high-speed engines, with more than 13 years of experience with this type engine. For marine propulsion, these diesels range from 100 to 5,600 bhp, while for generator sets ratings from 100 to 3,600 kw are available.

STORK-WERKSPOOR Stork Werkspoor Diesel B.V., known as SWDiesel, with headquarters in Amsterdam, is the leading diesel engine manufacturer in the Netherlands, with a production program covering an output range from 300 to 16,200 kw (400 to 21,725 bhp). This program consists of five models of four-stroke, medium-speed, heavy- duty engines, all capable of operating on heavy fuel.

The recently introduced SW280 engine type, fully adapted to the demands of the present and future market, is offered in six-, eight-, and nine-cylinder in-line configurations, and in a 12-cylinder V-form version, with outputs ranging from 1,465 to 3,530 kw (1,965-4,735 bhp).

Special attention in Stork's research program was given to the reduction of fuel consumption, re- suiting in lower figures for the SW280, F/SW240, and DR210 engines. R&D on the well-known TM410 and TM620 engine types, of which more than 650 have been delivered, has also been successful in meeting market demands for reduced fuel consumption; a reduction in fuel consumption of up to eight percent can be achieved. On a number of 18TM410 engines, a specific fuel consumption as low as 185 grams per kw hour has been recorded under full-load conditions. These reductions in consumption have been achieved without increasing the combustion pressure. Further reductions are foreseen in the near future. This will be achieved by some increase in the maximum cylinder pressure. Major improvements on these engines include the application of new high-efficiency turboblowers, and valve timing in injection systems to give higher injection pressures.

Operation on heavy fuel is one of the strongest points of SWDiesel engines. The poorest quality fuels have been tested in TM and SW engines. When installed as auxiliary engines, the SW models can use the same heavy fuel as the main engine.

Over the past few years, SWDiesel has set up offices in New Orleans, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. in an effort to expand its sales in the U.S. market. SWDiesel Gulf Inc. (Stork-Diesel) in New Orleans is a member of the SWDiesel Group.

SULZER The end of 1983 saw the commissioning of the first Sulzer RTA superlongstroke engines to be used for steam-to-diesel machinery conversions. Both the 1,813-TEU cellular containership Remuera Bay of Overseas Containers Ltd., and C.Y. Tung's 2,300-TEU Oriental Educator have each been equipped with a 9-cylinder RTA76 engine resulting in considerable fuel cost savings.

The new RTA engine series is now the world's best-selling, uniflow- scavenged, low-speed engine design, with current orders for more than 370 engines to be manufactured by the worldwide Sulzer family, representing a total output of just over four million bhp. The RTA provides for better fuel economy than previous engine generations by virtue of its optimum combination of extremely low specific fuel consumption and lower rotational speeds, permitting higher propeller efficiencies at modest first cost. Moreover, the improved fuel economy has been achieved without compromising Sulzer traditional reliability on poor-quality fuel oils. Six cylinder bore sizes, ranging from 380 to 840 mm, cover an engine power range from 1,720 to 35,520 kw (2,320 to 48,360 bhp).

Sulzer low-speed diesel engines have already taken a major role in the wave of steam-to-diesel conversions of recent years. The large, fast containerships built in the early 1970s with powerful steam turbine plants had proved particularly vulnerable to the high fuel price levels of the past decade. After initially slow-steaming, many were re-engined with more fuel-efficient diesel machinery.

VOLVO PENTA Volvo Penta of America, Rockleigh, N.J., has introduced new configurations of its six-cylinder diesel engines. The new turbocharged/ aftercooled version of the 5.48-liter six-cylinder engine is designated TAMD60C. Horsepower has been raised to 250 bhp at 2,500 rpm for the light-duty version, and 210 bhp at 2,500 for the medium-duty model. New this year is a continuous output rating of 177 bhp at 2,200 rpm.

The new Robert Bosch fuel injection pump is equipped with an aneroid smoke eliminator, and provides a specific fuel consumption of 156 grams per bhp hour at the 2,000-rpm continuous rating. The latest configuration of Volvo's 6.73-liter, six-cylinder turbo/aftercooled engine is the TAMD70E, rated 300 bhp at 2,500 rpm. Also available is an intermediate rating of 270 bhp at 2,500 rpm, or 211 continuous bhp at 2,000 rpm. Both the TAMD60 and 70 are available with heat exchangers or in keel-cooled modes. Higher horsepower with lower fuel consumption is the result of component redesign in the 9.6-liter TMD100C engine. A new turbocharger, in conjunction with a new injection pump and injectors, pistons, and liners, and a modified cylinder head results in 272 bhp at 2,000 rpm in the light-duty rating. The medium- and continuousduty ratings are 258 bhp and 238 bhp, respectively, at 1,800 rpm. Specific fuel consumption has been improved to 153 grams per bhp hour.

Volvo's largest engine, the tur- bocharged and aftercooled 11.9-liter TAMD121C, has had a series of modifications that are designed to enhance its already substantial reputation for economy and longevity. The cylinder block has been reinforced in the liner ledge area to withstand higher outputs, while the crankshaft has been nitrided to resist fatigue. New cylinder heads with improved water flow support new injectors with improved spray patterns and higher pressures.

New pistons, liners, connecting rods, and turbocharger all contribute to the 121C's light-duty rating of 408 bhp at 2,000 rpm. Mediumand continuous-duty ratings are 387 bhp at 1,900 rpm and 367 bhp at 1,800 rpm. The engine uses 159 grams of fuel per bhp hour at the continuous rating.

A wide variety of transmissions and power takeoffs make both the TMD100C and the TAMD121C ideal power sources for fishing vessles or other boats where numerous PTOs are required.

WARTS I LA DIESEL Wartsila Diesel, one of the world's leading manufacturers of medium-speed diesel engines, has three production plants: the Wartsila Vasa factory in Finland, the Trollhattan factory in Sweden, and the recently opened Wartsila Power Singapore in Singapore.

Wartsila's product development program focused on the design of diesel engines capable of both maximum economy and safe operation even in the most demanding applications. As a result, the company now produces two highstandard, medium-speed engines designed and developed from the very beginning to operate on the poorest quality fuel.

The Vasa 32 engine is well established in the world's marine market, and is installed as the main or auxiliary power source on a variety of ships. This engine, with its seven different cylinder versions—4R32, 8R32, 9R32, 12V32, 16V32, and 18V32—covers an output range from 1,820 to 8,350 bhp at 720 to 800 rpm. The Vasa 32 can operate on fuel with a viscosity up to 380 cSt.

The second of the company's heavy fuel engines is the Wartsila Vasa 22HF, said to be the smallest engine in the world developed exclusively to operate on heavy fuel.

The output range of the 22HF covers 720 to 3,480 bhp at 900 to 1,200 rpm. This engine is available in five different cylinder configurations— 4R22HF, 6R22HF, 8R22HF, 12V22HF, and 16V22HF—and can run on the same viscosity fuel as the Vasa 32, 380 cSt.

Main features of these engines are: starting, running, and stopping over the entire load range on heavy fuel without any limitations; heavy fuel operation with the same safety and reliability as when operating on distillate fuel; and all engines can run on the same type of heavy fuel.

The ability to burn heavy fuel successfully lies in a purpose-designed diesel engine and fuel-handling system. Wartsila's heavy fuel engines feature: increased preheating of the engine before starting, including jacket water, lube oil, charge air, fuel system on both the high- and low-pressure side, and fuel nozzles; increased filter capacity of both fuel oil and lube oil; higher temperature and improved insulation of the injection pump control system.

Wartsila Diesel is represented through its own subsidiaries and agents in 30 countries. The company's after-sales service is based on a worldwide network of trained specialists. Operators and maintenance engineers are trained onsite and at the Wartsila factories. Since 1980, Wartsila Diesel has been represented in the U.S. by Wartsila Power Inc., with offices in New Orleans, Houston, and New York. On the U.S. West Coast, the company is represented by Southwest Marine, Inc. of San Diego.

WAUKESHA Circle 25 on Reader S e r v i c e Card Waukesha Engine Division of Dresser Industries, Waukesha, Wise., has produced more than 40,000 horsepower of its new AT25 diesel since signing a license agreement with Sulzer Brothers Limited of Winterthur, Switzerland, several years ago.

This production follows a multimillion- dollar capital investment in plant renovation and new machine tools to build these heavyduty, four-stroke, medium-speed diesels. They deliver from 1,140 to 4,800 bhp (metric) in in-line sixand eight-cylinder, and V-12 and V-16 cylinder configurations. The AT25 is capable of operating on heavy, blended, and distillate fuels. This range is made possible through a design that incorporates oil-cooled injection nozzles, bore-cooled cylinder heads, exhaust value rotators, two-piece pistons, and turbocharger washing equipment.

A rugged yet compact engine, the AT25 is conservatively rated and offers excellent access to components for ease of service. Quickopening access covers are provided for such components as camshafts and mail bearings. A provision for fast removal of rocker arm covers facilitates valve adjustments. Water, lube oil, and fuel transfer pumps are located on the front of the engine for easy access. For maintenance, hydraulic tensioning of main bearing cap studs, cylinder head studs, and connecting rod studs insures precise preloading and cuts assembly time.

WICHMANN DIESEL Circle 26 on Reader S e r v i c e Card Wichmann Diesel, Inc., of Kenner, La., offers a line of fuel saving low speed diesels from 1,140 to 4,220 hp, with engine speeds from 300 to 475 rpm.

Wichmann states specific fuel consumption for their line of diesels is one of the lowest in the world. Simplicity of design reduces both planned and corrective maintenance. In addition, any necessary maintenance requires less time than with more complex propulsion systems.

All engines are two-stroke.

Models are available for reduction gear application or as a complete system directly connected to a Wichmann controllable pitch propeller.

Of in-line design, models are available in four to 10 cylinder configurations. They are loop scavanged, have no exhaust valves, require only standard instrumentation and controls. Other common features include water cooling, direct injection and turbocharging.

Spare parts are interchangeable throughout the entire Wichmann engine line providing ease of maintenance and a minimum spare parts inventory.

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